Indonesia is one of the main producing countries for snapper and grouper in the global seafood market. Snapper and grouper are highly sought-after species that are caught and sold for consumption on the local and international markets. 

The Indonesia Snapper and Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable provides a platform since 2015 for seafood suppliers in destination markets to discuss matters of common interest and identify fisheries where improvements are required. The roundtable acts to catalyze, monitor progress, and support the successful implementation of fishery improvement projects (FIPs), especially in small scale fisheries, and discuss future partnership and cooperation opportunities for improvements of snapper and grouper fisheries, incl. traceability and quality beside sustainability, at national level.

The T75 sector report for snapper and grouper details the state of the sector. Based on 2014 production data, 73,000 tonnes, or 8 percent of global production, are currently considered sustainable or improving, using publicly available information on MSC status and FIP progress ratings reviewed in early October 2017.

The Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR is primarily composed of US importers of Indonesian snapper and grouper, and one Indonesia-based supplier (which supplies to domestic retailers) that recently joined the SR. Current participation is adequate to allow some forward progress. However, in order to achieve the T75 goals for Indonesia, this SR must undergo extensive expansion to include more US-based importers, more Indonesia-based suppliers, and suppliers to other markets in Asia. Participants in the Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR are currently scoping FIPs in the Java Sea, Aru Islands, and Sumbawa.

In addition, both the SR participants and producer groups in Indonesia are supportive of and have begun work on a national-level snapper and grouper FIP approach (i.e. all levels of the supply chain collaborating on a FIP focused on improving national management of all snapper and grouper fisheries throughout Indonesia). A national-level FIP approach would help shift a substantial amount of snapper and grouper production, roughly 24.5 percent of global production, to the “improving” category and could serve as a model for many other countries.

Fisheries and/or FIPs covered: 

The SR focuses on both industrial and small-scale snapper and grouper fisheries in Indonesia. 

The following FIPs are supported and monitored: 

(PT. Intan Seafood/ILUFA)

(industry group)

In addition to the site-specific FIPs, two national-level FIPs are also under development:

1)     A national-level FIP will be developed by the National Indonesia Demersal Association, a new industry group being formed in 2019.

2)     The Nature Conservancy is leading development of an industry-wide snapper and grouper FIP, which is expected to launch in July 2019.

An overview of the fisheries covered by the SR can be found here.

T75 progress:

Work continues, and some progress has been made toward reaching the T75 goals for snapper and grouper. However, market demands, the multi-species/artisanal nature of the snapper and grouper fishery, and management challenges in target countries provide additional complications to reaching 75 percent by 2020. The more realistic goal for snapper and grouper is 35-40 percent by 2020. More investment in Indonesia and Mexico will help move the T75 goals forward.

Current participants in the Indonesia Snapper & Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable include:

US:
Anova Seafood
Beaver Street Fisheries
Channel Seafoods International
Hilo Fish
Netuno USA
Norpac Fisheries Export
North Atlantic
Quirch
Sea Delight
Seafood Imports, Inc. 

Indonesia:

PT. CSFI (Cilacap Samudera Fishing Industry) 

We are seeking additional participants, particularly suppliers to food service in North American, European, and Indonesian or other Asian markets. 

For more information, please contact Amber Von Harten.

Improvement needs: 

Snapper and grouper fisheries in Indonesia are facing some common major challenges, including:

  • Lack of specific stock status data for snapper and grouper species in Indonesian territorial waters. Snappers and groupers are included in the “demersal fishes” group in the public stock status overview, and not reported as individual species groups. 
  • Not all the artisanal vessels involved in snapper and grouper fisheries have been registered. A great deal of snapper and grouper is purchased directly from small boats (< 10 GT). These boats need to be registered properly to enable the supply chain to get the “catch certificate” documents required for export to some markets, especially the European market.
  • Lack of catch data reporting from artisanal vessels. Most snappers and groupers coming from the artisanal fishery are not landed in the Fish Auction Hall (TPI), and therefore are not recorded under the official data collection system. 
  • Logbook data still cannot be used by the government to contribute to stock evaluations, due to lack of compliance and accuracy in submission. Industrial snapper and grouper vessels are required by law to fill out logbooks documenting their catch data and submit these logbooks to the government. However, many vessels are not submitting logbooks, and the accuracy of data in some of those that are submitted is questionable.
  • Lack of species-specific identification in landings data. The species of snapper and grouper are highly diverse, and misidentification is very likely. About 14 species of snapper are harvested (most commonly Lutjanus malabaricusL. sebaeL. erythropterus, and Pristipomoides multidens), but most processors only categorize snappers into two groups: red snappers/kakap merah (Lutjanus spp.) and jobfishes/kurisi bali (Pristipomoides spp.). Over 30 species of grouper are harvested (most commonly Epinephelus malabaricus and Plectropomus leopardus), but most processors report all groupers in the general category of grouper/kerapu.
  • Government observers are not yet available for placement on snapper and grouper vessels. The Indonesian government has stated its intention to develop an observer program to collect catch-and-discard data on industrial vessels, and at least one FIP has made inclusion of observers part of their workplan, but the government observer program has not yet been launched.
  • The market is demanding a high proportion of “golden-size” fillets weighing 200 to 300 grams. Fillets of this size are processed from the immature, juvenile fish weighing 800 to 1,500 grams. Scientific data shows that the average length at maturity is about 54.8 cm, which yields about a 1,500-gram fish. 

Current objectives: 

  1. Expand the scale/scope of existing FIPs and develop a National Indonesia Snapper and Grouper FIP.
  2. Support the formation of an Indonesian producer and exporter association for snapper and grouper (National Demersal Association).
  3. Establish a dialogue with MMAF regarding stock status information, catch data collection, and the observer program.
  4. Pilot a verification system to ensure proper vessel registration and logbook submission within SR participant supply chains.
  5. Develop sourcing recommendations and supporting outreach materials to address the harvest of juvenile fish based on market demands.
  6. Monitor progress and support the implementation of FIPs, and ensure all FIPs are reporting on Fishery Progress and receive A–C progress ratings on FishSource

Action recommendations for SR participants: 

  • Ensure FIPs are routinely reporting publicly on Fishery Progress.
  • Request the supply chain to provide documentation that:
    • Both industrial and artisanal vessels that are supplying snapper and grouper to them are properly registered; and
    • Industrial vessels are submitting logbooks to the MMAF.
  • Evaluate size classes in your sourcing portfolio to determine whether too much emphasis is being placed on immature fish, and commit to alternative sourcing practices.
  • Request your supplier to participate in the National Demersal Association for Indonesian snapper and grouper producers and exporters.
  • Support the national-level FIP approaches being developed by the National Demersal Association and The Nature Conservancy.
  • Encourage additional participation in existing FIPs.
  • Catalyze FIPs in the following priority fisheries:
    • Artisanal snapper and grouper fishery in Sumbawa Island (gears include hook and line, handlines, and bottom longlines); and
    • Artisanal snapper and grouper fishery in Aru and Tanimbar Islands (gear includes traps and gillnets).

Progress update:

An overview of past progress can be found here.

Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR Update – January to March 2019

This briefing provides an update on progress, activities, and news in the areas of interest to the SR. It also indicates any actions and further support needed. A full summary of past progress, including details from past quarterly updates, can be found here.

1. Improvement efforts in Target 75 priority fisheries

 Please find an overview of fisheries identified in the T75 sector report for snapper and grouper, including those currently not necessarily prioritized by the SR, here

National-level Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Improvements 

Update:

  • Two national-level FIPs are in the process of being developed.
  1. To support development and implementation of an industry-led national FIP, a National Demersal Association is being formed, composed of Indonesian producers and exporters. The role of the Association will be to serve as a coordination and discussion platform among snapper and grouper (demersal) processors/exporters to discuss the common issues across fisheries and work together with government and other stakeholders to find solutions.
  2. The Nature Conservancy will lead and launch a national-level FIP focused on snapper and grouper. FIP participants must commit to transparency in their sourcing and to not buy juvenile snapper. The FIP will also focus on data collection and governance objectives. The FIP is expected to launch in July 2019. View the profile on Fishery Progress here

For clarity on how the two national-level FIPs will coordinate efforts using different approaches, read the Joint Statement developed by SFP and The Nature Conservancy here

Further support needed: Support the continued development of a national-level approach for FIPs and the development of the National Demersal Association. SR participants also need to communicate to FIP participants the importance of publicly reporting FIP progress on Fishery Progress, to ensure accurate FIP ratings and transparency.

Site-level Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Improvements

 Indonesia North Java Sea snapper and grouper FIP

Update:

  • The FIP started public reporting in Q1 2019. The full fishery profile is posted on Fishery Progress here. Basic information can be found here.
  • In Q1, the fishery maintained a B rating using the FishSource ratings system. For information about the FIP and the fishery, read here.

Further support needed: Additional support for this FIP is needed. Please contact Dessy Anggraeni at SFP for more information on the FIP

2. Support to established FIPs and improvement efforts 

Please find an overview of all existing FIPs and improvement efforts, their current progress ratings, and status here.

Site-level Indonesian Snapper and Grouper FIPs 

Bottom Longline Snapper and Grouper (Aru, Arafura, and Timor Seas) FIP

Update:

  • Information about the FIP can be read here.
  • The fishery maintains a B rating using the FishSource ratings system. For information about the FIP and the fishery, read here.
  • No Q1 update.

Further support needed: Additional support for this FIP is needed. Please contact Dessy Anggraeni at SFP for more information on the FIP. 

Indonesia Makassar Strait snapper and grouper FIP

Update:

  • The full fishery profile is posted on Fishery Progress here. Basic information can be found here.
  • In Q1, the fishery maintained a B rating using the FishSource ratings system. For information about the FIP and the fishery, read here.
  • No Q1 update.

Further support needed: Additional support for this FIP is needed. Please contact Dessy Anggraeni at SFP for more information on the FIP.

3.     Support for mitigation of overarching fishery/FIP sustainability issues 

Juvenile Snapper Issue 

Update:

  • Demand for plate-size, or “golden-size,” fillets is coming from both the US and domestic markets in Indonesia.
  • Length at maturity varies greatly among some of the targeted Indonesian snapper and grouper species, and a preliminary analysis of sourcing indicates that, for some species, juveniles are being sourced.
  • Best sourcing practices and information about juvenile snapper life history are needed to address this issue in the short term. 

The SR supported focusing on this issue for 2019, and the following actions are planned:

  • Further discussions will be held with SR members about their sourcing practices to help inform development of educational materials about juvenile snapper sourcing for their customers.
  • SR members will consider joining the TNC-led national FIP, which will address transparency in sourcing and no sourcing of juvenile snapper.

Relevant news/resources:

Further support needed: SR participants provide input on best sourcing practices to share with their buyers and continue to try alternative sourcing to avoid sourcing juvenile snapper. For the long term, support national-level policy to address the issue of domestic demand for juvenile snapper in Indonesia. 

National Demersal Association 

Update:

  • SFP has been facilitating meetings with export and processing companies in Indonesia to discuss the creation of a National Demersal Association.
  • The Association will serve as a coordination and discussion platform among snapper/grouper (demersal) processors and exporters to address common issues across fisheries by working together with government and other stakeholders.
  • The Association will also play a role in leading a National Comprehensive Snapper Grouper FIP, with the main objective of high-level government engagement to guide development of government policy and a fisheries management framework for sustainable Indonesian snapper and grouper fisheries.
  • Two meetings of those companies signed on to the National Demersal Association took place between January and March 2019.
  • A Board of Directors has been established for the Association.
  • The Association’s code of conduct and by-laws are currently being drafted.

Further support needed: SR participants encourage their suppliers to join the National Demersal Association. 

  1. Expansion of the SR 

SFP is in the process of identifying additional SR participants, particularly suppliers to food service in North American, European, and Indonesian or other Asian markets.

Update:

  • The Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR meeting was held in Boston in March 2019.
  • The agenda included updates from SFP staff on the site-level FIPs, the formation of the National Demersal Association and subsequent Association-led national FIP in development, discussion of juvenile snapper sourcing issues, and updates from The Nature Conservancy on stock assessment and harvest strategy activities and the TNC-led national FIP.
  • View the meeting presentation and meeting report.
  • Two potential new SR members attended the meeting, and invitations were sent to these two participants asking them to become members of the SR. 

Further support needed: Promote the SR to fellow industry members and invite participation, and share your supply chain knowledge with SFP. Please contact Amber Von Harten.

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