Indonesia is one of the main producing countries for snapper and grouper in the global seafood market, accounting for about 40 percent of global production. Indonesian snapper and grouper are highly sought-after species that are caught and sold for consumption in domestic and international markets. The Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable (SR) provides a platform for seafood suppliers in destination markets to discuss matters of common interest, identify fisheries where improvements are required, and support outreach, education, and capacity-building activities to improve the sustainability and management of Indonesian snapper and grouper fisheries. The roundtable acts to catalyze, monitor, and support fishery improvement projects (FIPs), especially in small-scale fisheries; engage with the Indonesian government on fishery policy and management issues; support co-management activities in the artisanal snapper and grouper fishery; and work with foodservice and retail partners on sustainability issues and best sourcing practices.

The Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR is comprised of leading US importers of Indonesian snapper and grouper and one Indonesia-based supplier that supplies domestic retailers (see the Participants tab for a full list). The participants actively support and monitor two national FIPs that involve all levels of the supply chain collaborating on improving national management Indonesian snapper and grouper fisheries:

Prior to 2020, there were three site-level snapper and grouper FIPs being implemented by industry, focused in specific and geographically isolated areas in Indonesia. The SR provided support to help merge these three basic FIPs into the national-level snapper and grouper FIP, to be led by the newly formed industry association of processing and exporting companies – the Indonesian Demersal Association. Together, the two national FIPs are uniting fishers and processors from throughout the country, with complementary workplans designed to bring systemic change to the overall management system. Yet, although these FIPs are designed to have national impact, they only cover about 20 percent of Indonesia’s wild snapper and grouper production, so there is a continuing need to focus on expanding the coverage and impact of these FIPs.

Other SR work includes support for the formal development, launch, and public recognition of the Indonesian Demersal Association (ADI), creation of fact sheets for foodservice and retail partners with recommendations for how to sustainably source snapper and grouper and avoid the purchase of juvenile fish, and submission of a letter of support to the Indonesian Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries outlining recommendations for policy improvements based on issues outlined in SFP’s Indonesia Policy Brief.

For more information on current work being undertaken by the Supply Chain Roundtable, please see the Activity tab.

The T75 sector report for snapper and grouper details the sustainability status of the sector. Based on 2014 production data, about 147,000 tonnes (16 percent) of global production is currently considered sustainable or improving, using publicly available information on MSC status and FIP progress ratings reviewed in August 2019.

The Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable (SR) is primarily composed of US importers of Indonesian snapper and grouper, and one Indonesia-based supplier that supplies to domestic retailers. Current participation is adequate to allow some forward progress. However, in order to achieve the T75 goals for Indonesia, this SR must undergo extensive expansion to include more US-based importers, more Indonesia-based suppliers, and suppliers to other markets in Asia.

Fisheries and/or FIPs covered: 

The SR focuses on both industrial and small-scale snapper and grouper fisheries in Indonesia. The following national FIPs are supported and monitored: 

For more details on the sustainability status of the fisheries, progress of the FIPs, and improvement recommendations, please click here

T75 progress:

The development of two national-level snapper and grouper FIPs in Indonesia has helped with progress toward reaching the T75 goals for snapper and grouper. However, market demands, the multispecies/artisanal nature of the snapper and grouper fishery, and management challenges in target countries provide additional complications to reaching 75 percent. More investment in Indonesia and Mexico will help move the T75 goals forward.

Current participants in the Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable include:

Anova Seafood

Beaver Street Fisheries

Channel Seafoods International

Harbor Seafood

Hilo Fish

Netuno USA

Norpac Fisheries Export

North Atlantic

Pacific Coral Seafood Co., Inc.

Quirch Foods

Santa Monica Seafood

Sea Delight

Seafood Imports, Inc.


PT. CSFI (Cilacap Samudera Fishing Industry) 

We are seeking additional participants, particularly suppliers to food service in North American, European, and Indonesian or other Asian markets. 

For more information, please contact Amber Von Harten.

Progress Update

A summary of SR progress and activities can be found here.

Sustainability Issues

For 2020-2021, SFP has advised the Supply Chain Roundtable participants of the following improvement needs in Indonesian snapper and grouper fisheries:

1. Improve stock status information in Indonesian territorial waters: Currently, snappers and groupers are included in the “demersal fishes” group in the public stock status overview in Indonesia, and not reported as individual species groups. There is also a lack of species-specific identification in landings data. Although about 14 species of snapper and more than 30 species of grouper are harvested in Indonesia, most processors categorize them all into just two groups of snappers and one general category of groupers. In addition, lack of compliance and accuracy in submission of logbook data hampers effective stock evaluations. Although industrial snapper and grouper vessels are required by law to fill out logbooks documenting their catch data and submit these logbooks to the government, many vessels are not submitting logbooks, and the accuracy of data in some of those that are submitted is questionable.

2. Increase and improve catch data collection for artisanal snapper and grouper fisheries: While a significant amount of snapper and grouper is purchased directly from small boats (<10 GT), many of these boats have not been registered. Proper registration is important to enable the supply chain to get the “catch certificate” documents required for export to some markets, especially the European market. In addition, most snappers and groupers coming from the artisanal fishery are not landed in the Fish Auction Hall (TPI), and therefore are not recorded under the official data collection system. Additionally, the catch and production data is needed to help contribute to development of harvest strategies for the national snapper grouper management plan.

3. Develop a government observer program on snapper and grouper vessels:The Indonesian government has stated its intention to develop an observer program to collect catch-and-discard data on industrial vessels, and at least one FIP has made inclusion of observers part of its workplan, but the government observer program has not yet been launched.

4. Reduce the demand for “golden-size” fillets: These fillets, which weigh 200 to 300 grams, are in high demand in the market. They are processed from immature, juvenile fish weighing 800 to 1,500 grams. Scientific data show that the average length at maturity is about 54.8 cm, which yields about a 1,500-gram fish. Both FIPs include activities for conducting data collection on the life history of commonly harvested snapper and grouper species, to help contribute additional information on size at maturity. Information on appropriate sourcing specifications to avoid juvenile snapper and grouper species needs to be further expanded and shared with retail and foodservice partners.

5. Support development of co-management for the artisanal sector of the snapper and grouper fishery: Approximately 80-85 percent of the snapper and grouper fishery consists of small-scale fishers who are not currently engaged with either national-level FIP. Fisher networks exist, but they lack the capacity to engage with government at the local, provincial, and national levels, or with the FIPs. Support for capacity development of small-scale snapper and grouper fisher networks, as well as the development of co-management approaches, is needed.

SR Workplan 

The SR will be reviewing a proposed workplan based on the above listed improvement needs in the second quarter of 2021.

Fact Sheets

Snapper Grouper Overview 

Recommendations for Sustainable Sourcing and Avoiding Juvenile Fish, and Sourcing Specifications Table 

Project Contact

If you would like more information about the roundtable or wish to support it, please contact Amber Von Harten.

Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR Update: July – September 2020

This briefing provides an update on progress, activities, and news in the areas of interest to the SR. It also indicates any actions and further support needed. 

NOTE: Due to the impacts of COVID-19, activities associated with the Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable and other industry partners have been affected. SFP is in the process of assessing impacts to this sector, both in the field and in the markets, and will shift activities accordingly in order to support domestic and international supply chain members.

Read the latest Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR update. 

A full summary of past progress, including details from past quarterly updates, can be found in the SR Chronicles.

1. Improvement efforts in Target 75 priority fisheries 

Please find an overview of fisheries identified in the T75 sector report for snapper and grouper, including those currently not necessarily prioritized by the SR, here

National-level Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Improvements 


One national-level FIP was launched in August 2019 (led by The Nature Conservancy), and one additional national-level FIP was launched by the Indonesian Demersal Association (ADI)  .

Indonesia snapper and grouper – bottom longline, dropline, handline, trap, and gillnet (ADI)

  • The Indonesian Demersal Association FIP was launched in September 2020 on Fishery Progress and can be viewed here.
  • The FIP is a comprehensive FIP, and the scoping document and workplan can be viewed in the FIP profile.

SFP continues to provide technical support to the Indonesian Demersal Association (ADI) to implement its national-level snapper and grouper FIP.

As discussed, this industry-led FIP merged the three site-level basic FIPs (Makassar Strait, North Java Sea, and Aru/Arafura Sea) and aims to complement  the national FIP led by The Nature Conservancy. 

For clarity on how the two national-level FIPs will coordinate efforts using different approaches, read the Joint Statement developed by SFP and The Nature Conservancy here

Further support needed: Support the continued development of  national-level fishery improvement priorities that support both national FIPs. SR participants should continue to encourage their suppliers to join ADI and provide input to ADI on prioritizing activities in its national FIP workplan. The SR should explore and consider funding opportunities to support specific activities in the national FIP workplan. SR participants also need to communicate to FIP participants the importance of publicly reporting FIP progress on Fishery Progress, to ensure accurate FIP ratings and transparency. 

2. Support to established FIPs and improvement efforts 

Please find an overview of all existing FIPs and improvement efforts, their current progress ratings, and status here.

Site-level Indonesian Snapper and Grouper FIPs 

Note: With the development of the industry-led national snapper and grouper FIP, the three site-level FIPs (Makassar Strait, North Java Sea, and Aru/Arafura Sea)  merged with the national FIP led by ADI and continue to address their key goals under the umbrella of the national FIP.

Comprehensive Indonesian Snapper and Grouper FIPs

Indonesia deepwater groundfish - dropline, longline, trap and gillnet

  • The FIP was established in August 2019.
  • In Q3 2020, the FIP received an A rating, indicating that the FIP has made advanced progress.
  • The full fishery profile is posted on Fishery Progress here.

Further support needed: The SR should ask FIP participants to continue supporting the FIP objectives on reducing the amount of juvenile snapper and grouper in the supply chain and continued development of harvest strategies for the future. Encourage FIP participants to continue to make progress toward FIP goals in order to maintain an A-C rating. Please contact Peter Mous at The Nature Conservancy for more information on the FIP. 

3. Support for mitigation of overarching fishery/FIP sustainability issues 

National policy issues

Members of the SR (8), US retail companies (2), and a US food distributor (1) sent a letter to the new Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Edhy Prabowo, to express support for the broad policy issues outlined in the Indonesia policy brief, including: 1) better understanding of the fleet characterization/operation, 2) enhanced compliance with regulations through non-regulatory means, 3) fishery science to support management in the blue swimming crab and snapper and grouper fisheries, and 4) social and economic science to aid in policy development and management.

Further support needed: The SR should review policy issues and incorporate emerging issues into an updated policy brief in 2021.

Juvenile snapper issue


Discussions with SR participants on developing in-person and/or webinar learning sessions targeting foodservice and retail partners using the two fact sheets developed by SFP and TNC have been delayed as a result of COVID-19 impacts. However, SR participants continue to share the fact sheets, and additional engagement with the SR is planned for Q3 and Q4 2020 (see below):

Snapper Grouper Overview – This fact sheet outlines some basic biology of snapper and grouper species and the use of scientific names and common names in the market, and describes how this can impact the fisheries management and marketing of these species. 

Recommendations for Sustainable Sourcing and Avoiding Juvenile Fish, and Sourcing Specifications Table – This fact sheet provides some recommendations/tips for what to look for when sourcing fish in different product forms, in order to avoid sourcing juvenile fish. The tables focus on Indonesian snapper and grouper species only and provide the size/weight of various fish products to look for to ensure you are sourcing adult fish. The top six exported species for both snapper and grouper are included in the tables.

Further support needed: SR participants assist with connecting retail and foodservice partners to engage on this issue through virtual learning sessions in 2021, once foodservice partners begin to recover from the impacts of COVID-19. For the long term, support national-level policy to address the issue of domestic demand for juvenile snapper in Indonesia. 

Indonesian Demersal Association (ADI) 

Update: SFP facilitated and hosted a virtual joint meeting in September between the SR and ADI members to exchange information and ideas on implementation of the newly launched national FIP. Chairman Novi Saputora provided remarks to the SR on the development of the national FIP and expected implementation of FIP activities. Discussions were held between participants about expectations for support of ADI FIP activities and the interests of the SR in specific FIP activities.

Further support needed: SR participants continue to encourage their suppliers to join the Indonesian Demersal Association and the FIP, provide input on priority activities to support implementation of the national FIP, and explore and consider funding opportunities to support specific activities in the national FIP workplan. Additionally, the SR should consider establishing a Chair for the SR who would help lead the work of the SR as well as serve as the liaison with ADI on their FIP

4. Expansion of the SR 

SFP is in the process of identifying additional SR participants, particularly suppliers to foodservice companies in North American, European, and Indonesian or other Asian markets. 

Further support needed: Promote the SR to fellow industry members, invite participation, and share your supply chain knowledge with SFP. Please contact Amber Von Harten.