Last Update: May 2017
Indonesia’s territorial waters adjoin both the Indian Ocean and the Western Central Pacific Ocean, two of the world’s most important fishing grounds for tuna and other large pelagic fish. Consequently, Indonesia is one of the most important producers of tuna and large pelagic fish in the world.
However, the fisheries face some major challenges including:
- Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent catch data reporting for larger vessels
- A lack of data for the artisanal tuna fisheries (the current available annual catch data of tuna fisheries from Indonesia is collected only from larger vessels)
- A lack of detail in existing catch data that does not identify the catch for each species per gear type
- Limited or unavailable data for retained catch and bycatch
Several fishery improvement projects (FIPs) have been established by the industry and supported by NGOs. These FIPs vary in approach, the stakeholders involved, geographical scope, and fisheries covered. However, each FIP aims to improve their respective fisheries by addressing the challenges noted above.
The Indonesia Tuna and Large Pelagics Supply Chain Roundtable provides a platform to discuss matters of common interest and identify fisheries where improvements are required. The roundtable also catalyzes FIPs, monitors progress and supports FIP creation and implementation.
Supply Chain Roundtable Participants:
Fisheries and/or FIPs Covered:
The roundtable focuses on Indonesian longline and handline fisheries in the Indonesian EEZ, Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific Ocean.
The following FIPs are supported and monitored:
For more details on the sustainability status of the fisheries, progress of the FIPs, and improvement recommendations, please follow this link.
Improvement Needs and Recommendations:
1. Strengthen and improve catch data reporting from both artisanal and industrial tuna fisheries to support implementation of national tuna management plan.
2. Government of Indonesia should comply with conservation and management measures (CMMs) of regional fishery management organizations (RFMOs) (IOTC, WCPFC, CCSBT, and IATTC), including adoption of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures (including biological reference points, harvest control rules, and increased observer coverage for longline fleets).
3. Support the implementation of the national and regional observer program on vessels over 30 gross tons (GT), and measures aimed at both target and incidental market species as well as non-market species, including ecologically related species (ERS), and all other mandated obligations.
SFP sees the newly established National Tuna Fishery Management Plan (Ministerial Regulation No. 107/KEPMEN-KP/2015) as a good opportunity to link the FIPs with the legal/roadmap framework established by the government to improve tuna fisheries in Indonesia.
The SR prioritizes the following fisheries for the initiation and expansion of FIPs:
- Catalyze establishment of longline tuna FIP in Indonesian waters of Western Central Pacific Ocean focusing on improvement of logbook submission and onboard observer program.
- Expand participation in handline yellowfin tuna FIPs in Indonesian waters of Western and Central Pacific Ocean focusing on improving the data collection.
- Catalyze more handline tuna FIPs in Indonesian waters of Indian Ocean.
- Expand participation in Indonesia longline yellowfin tuna and large pelagic FIPs in the Indian Ocean focusing on logbook improvement and onboard observer program.
Find the full list of fisheries in need of improvements overseen by the roundtable here.
1. Urge the Indonesian Government to comply with conservation and management measures (CMMs) of regional fishery management organizations (RFMOs) (IOTC, WCPFC, CCSBT, and IATTC*) including adoption of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures (including biological reference points, harvest control rules, and increased observer coverage for longline fleets).
2. Strengthen and improve catch data collection system to ensure complete and timely submission of data sets (i.e., catches, effort, size) through better logbook submission to provide annual catch estimates by gear type and species in the archipelagic waters, territorial waters, and high seas needed for robust stock assessment to the IOTC, CCSBT, and WCPFC.
3. Urge the government to coordinate some industries’ initiative to carry out fishery-dependent data collection for small-scale fisheries.
4. Support the government to implement the National Fisheries Management Plan measures (e.g., data collection, onboard observers, port state measures, transshipment within the territorial waters).
5. Supply chain to initiate or participate in a fishery improvement project (FIP) and to publicly report the progress of the FIP regularly.
Current Objectives for 2017:
- Expand scale and participation of the FIPs—more longline and handline vessels participate in the existing FIPs.
- All industry-led FIPs maintain a FIP progress rating of A–C.
- At least 10 more boats, participating in FIPs, engage in onboard observer program and more accurate logbook submission.
In March 2015, SFP hosted an Indonesian Fisheries SR meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, with the purposes of introducing buyers to the Supply Chain Roundtable in Indonesia; getting an update from the Indonesian industries who are implementing FIPs; and gathering support from buyers to help catalyze and move FIPs forward via the Supply Chain Roundtables. At least 50 people attended the meeting, including retailers, 1st-tier suppliers (about 18 companies), and Indonesian processors/exporters (at least 10 companies). Three 1st-tier suppliers expressed interested in participating in the Indonesia Tuna and Large Pelagics SR after the meeting was held.
On 7 March 2016, the first Indonesia Tuna and Large Pelagics SR meeting convened in Boston (during Seafood Expo North America). The SR discussed and agreed roles of SR participants, reviewed status of the fisheries and FIPs and SR workplan for 2016, and agreed actions recommended for participants. See meeting report, presentation and supporting documents.
In April 2015, SFP collaborated with IPNLF (International Pole and Line Foundation) to jointly host the Indonesian Fisheries gathering during Seafood Expo Global in Brussels. SFP CEO Jim Cannon talked briefly about the Indonesia Tuna and Large Pelagics SR, and FIP implementer Intimas Surya presented their progress and challenges implementing their respective FIPs in Indonesia. As a result of the gathering, one French 1st-tier supplier joined the Indonesia SR. During the Brussels expo, several meetings were also held with buyers of Indonesian tuna and large pelagics that come from the FIPs, including Direct Ocean, Sodexo, Quirch, and Kyokuyo.
In May 2016, SR participants attended the Bali Tuna Conference and International Coastal Business Forum in Bali and encouraged attending producers to seek guidance from SFP on FIP initiation.
In August 2016, SR participants attended the regional FIP implementers workshop in Bali to discuss FIP financing and securing government support, and to assess FIP effectiveness.
SFP provided advice to Indonesia-based companies on developing FIPs, as requested from their buyers, who are the participants of the SR. These companies included: PT. Sari Tuna Makmur (handline tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi), Hatindo (handline tuna in East Java), and PT. Giovanni Makmur (handline tuna in Lesser Sunda and East Java). In addition, PT. Kemilau Bintang Timur (KBT) requested development of a mahi-mahi FIP, as requested by their buyers.
In July 2016, SR participants noted the potential for shark finning in their supply chain and initiated a conversation with the catchers to develop a shark-finning policy on board FIP vessels. It was agreed that the FIP vessels should comply with IOTC policy on shark finning, which is that fins and bodies of sharks have to be brought on board and fins cannot be separated from a shark’s body. Vessel owners in the FIP have instructed captains not to conduct shark finning onboard, and port inspections will include looking for shark fins.
SFP participated in a series of workshops to develop an Indonesian Harvest Strategy for Tuna Fishery hosted by the Indonesian government (Directorate of Fishery Resources (SDI), DG Capture Fishery, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF)), where industry-led FIPs contributed with industry production data. Data collected from the FIPs will be continuously used to support the development of a harvest strategy for tuna from the Archipelagic Waters, Fishery Management Area 714, which covers Banda Sea. SFP has been actively involved, together with IPNLF, MDPI, Greenpeace Indonesia, and WWF Indonesia, in supporting the MMAF to establish a harvest strategy (Harvest Control Rule) for Fishery Management Areas 713 (Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, Flores Sea, and Bali Sea), 714 (Banda Sea), and 715 (Tomini Bay, Maluku, Halmahera, and Ceram Sea).
In June 2016, SFP presented the improvement activities on the catch data of the Handline Yellowfin Tuna Banda Sea FIP, led by Intimas Surya, at the 7th Indonesian Annual Catch Estimate for the WCPFC Area.
SFP continued coordinating with the Indonesian government regarding an industry initiative to carry out fishery-dependent data collection for small-scale fisheries. SFP met with the Director and some scientists from P4KSI (Research Center for Fishery Resources and Conservation) to discuss the data collected from the Handline Yellowfin Tuna Banda Sea FIP and how the FIP can contribute to improve the catch data and monitor the fishing ground.
New FIPs established:
In July 2015, the FIP for Indonesian tuna and large pelagics in the Indian Ocean expanded as PT. Tuna Permata Rezeki (Permata Marindo Jaya) launched their own FIP at the request of the SR participants. This FIP includes 35 longline vessels owned by PT. Tuna Permata Rezeki (Permata Marindo Jaya) and its report is linked here.
Two SR participants have encouraged their suppliers (Giovanni Makmur and Hatindo/168) to participate in the handline tuna FIPs in South Java Sea. These companies do not have their own boats, therefore they do not have control over the captains. Meanwhile, WWF has been running the improvement project for handline tuna in Sendang Biru (East Java) through Seafood Saver, so it was decided that the two companies should collaborate with the existing FIP through the Seafood Saver program and not initiate separate improvement efforts.
Onboard observer program and improvement on logbook submission:
SFP continued to encourage cooperation between Indonesian industry and government in implementation of the National Observer Program on vessels >30 GT. FIP implementer PT. Tuna Permata Rezeki and the Indonesia Tuna Research Institute (Loka Tuna Benoa) signed an MOU to strengthen collaboration with the scientific observer program on board FIP vessels.
The onboard observer program has been slowed down by the agreement among members of ATLI (Indonesian Longline Tuna Association) (of which PT. Intimas is a member) that until the transshipment regulation is lifted by the Indonesian government (MMAF), members of ATLI will not accept onboard observers. SFP provided guidance to FIPs to lift the barrier from having observers on board. Three observers on board FIP vessels and one FIP vessel participated in a trial using closed-circuit television to monitor the activities on board a supporting vessel, where tuna catch was transported from fishing vessels to the supporting vessel.
So far, only three longline tuna FIP vessels and three longline tuna non-FIP vessels have participated in the onboard observer program. Logistical challenges still hinder good observer coverage and the SR will need to continue pushing for their producers’ participation in the program.
Participation in the logbook submission has improved. Several trainings were conducted for captains of tuna vessels to improve the quality of logbook reporting. SFP is awaiting feedback from governmental authorities on the quality of logbook submissions and will shape future training accordingly.
January – March
In January 2017, participants of the two Indonesia longline tuna FIPs operating in the Indian Ocean (led by Permata Marindo Jaya and PT. Intimas Surya) submitted their logbook data to be used for FishSource profiles.
In January 2017, SFP participated in the review of the draft of a Ministerial Regulation on tuna development in Indonesian waters and high seas. This regulation was drafted to ensure compliance to RFMO measures, especially related to combating IUU. The regulation covers: the National Record of Vessels Authorized to Fish within Archipelagic Waters (RVIA), vessel markings, logbooks, catch certificates, transshipment, onboard observers (scientific data), total allowable catch (TAC), vessel monitoring systems (VMS), conservation measures (bycatch of shark, mammals, seabirds), IUU fishing measures, and export and import of tuna.
SFP facilitated the Indonesian Fisheries Roundtable meeting on 20 March 2017 during Seafood Expo North America in Boston. The meeting aimed to 1) provide a venue for the buyers, suppliers, and producers of Indonesian fisheries products and the Indonesian government (MMAF) to discuss the progress and challenges of implementing fishery improvement projects (FIP) in small-scale fisheries; 2) discuss the challenges for small-scale fisheries to comply with the regulations and meet the market demand on sustainability and traceability; and gather support from buyers on improvement initiatives, especially in small-scale fisheries. Attendees included the Director General of Product Competitiveness (MMAF), Indonesian companies, US buyers, NGOs, and donors.
Discussion related to small-scale tuna FIPs included: 1) the need for more buyers to purchase the FIP products; 2) how small-scale fisheries FIPs may not only focus on improving fisheries to meet sustainability standards, but also work on capacity building for the fishers, including handling, post-harvesting, safety at sea, community organizing, etc.
In March 2017, SFP participated in the 5th Stakeholder Harvest Strategy Workshop in Jakarta organized by the Directorate Fishery Resource (MMAF). The aims of the workshop were:
1) Discuss and formulate potential management measures for skipjack and yellowfin tuna for pole and line and handline gear at Fishery Management Areas (FMAs) 714 (Banda Sea), 715, and 716.
2) Understand the current state of the WCPFC Harvest Strategy and management strategy evaluation (MSE).
3) Finalize quantitative objectives and performance measures.
4) Select a small number of feasible harvest strategies for further evaluation.
5) Identify key uncertainties for implementation of the selected feasible harvest strategies. (FMAs 714, 715, and 716 are archipelagic waters that are part of WCPFC, but the Indonesian government intends to manage the coastal tuna in these areas under their own management plan.)
The results of the third technical data workshop were presented. The workshop was attended and supported by tuna experts from WCPFC and Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). SFP and MDPI (an independent foundation focused on small-scale fisheries in Indonesia) are the only two NGOs that have been invited to contribute data and participate in the development of a harvest strategy.
April – May
In April 2017, SFP collaborated again with IPNLF (International Pole and Line Foundation) to jointly host the Indonesian fisheries gathering (under the title: Sustainable, Safe and Traceable Tuna) during the Seafood Expo Global in Brussels. SFP gave a short talk on Indonesia tuna.
After the meeting in Boston, SFP followed up with a fishing company that owns 17 longline vessels operating in Indonesian waters of FMA 714 (Banda Sea) and is interested in developing a longline tuna FIP for their fishery.
If you would like more information about the Supply Chain Roundtable or wish to support it, please contact SFP.
* Note - Definitions for RFMO acronyms:
IOTC: Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
WCPFC: Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission
CCSBT: Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna
IATTC: Inter American Tropical Tuna Commission